Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. Mary Curzon, Baroness Curzon of Kedleston and her husband are credited with starting the movement to protect this area. In 1908, Hemis national park guide service was designated a “Reserve Forest”. The Kaziranga Game Sanctuary was renamed the “Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary” in 1950 by P.
Stracey, the forest conservationist, in order to rid the name of hunting connotations. Bill, which imposed heavy penalties for rhinoceros poaching. Kaziranga has been the target of several natural and man-made calamities in recent decades. Floods caused by the overflow of the river Brahmaputra, leading to significant losses of animal life.
Encroachment by people along the periphery has also led to a diminished forest cover and a loss of habitat. One horned Indian rhinos grazing at swamp area near Bagori range under Kaziranga National Park in Nagaon district of Assam, India on Thursday. For years, rhinos have been widely slaughtered for their horn, a prized ingredient in traditional Asian medicines. Destruction of their habitat over the years has brought the rhinos to the brink of extinction. These animals are among the world’s most endangered species. Although the etymology of the name Kaziranga is not certain, there exist a number of possible explanations derived from local legends and records.
According to one legend, a girl named Rawnga, from a nearby village, and a youth named Kazi, from Karbi Anglong, fell in love. Testimony to the long history of the name can be found in some records, which state that once, while the Ahom king Pratap Singha was passing by the region during the seventeenth century, he was particularly impressed by the taste of fish, and on asking was told it came from Kaziranga. Among the Karbis, Kajir is a common name for a girl child, and it was believed that a woman named Kajir once ruled over the area. The park area is circumscribed by the Brahmaputra River, which forms the northern and eastern boundaries, and the Mora Diphlu, which forms the southern boundary. Kaziranga has flat expanses of fertile, alluvial soil, formed by erosion and silt deposition by the River Brahmaputra. The park experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter.
During this season, animals usually are found near water bodies. During the peak months of July and August, three-fourths of the western region of the park is submerged, due to the rising water level of the Brahmaputra. National Park was flooded as on 3 August 2016. Kaziranga contains significant breeding populations of 35 mammalian species, of which 15 are threatened as per the IUCN Red List. Kaziranga is one of the few wild breeding areas outside Africa for multiple species of large cats, such as Bengal tigers and leopards. Kaziranga has been identified by Birdlife International as an Important Bird Area. It is home to a variety of migratory birds, water birds, predators, scavengers, and game birds.
Kaziranga was once home to seven species of vultures, but the vulture population reached near extinction, supposedly by feeding on animal carcasses containing the drug Diclofenac. Two of the largest snakes in the world, the reticulated python and rock python, as well as the longest venomous snake in the world, the king cobra, inhabit the park. Kaziranga is one of the last strongholds for the wild water buffalo. Four main types of vegetation exist in this park. There is a difference in altitude between the eastern and western areas of the park, with the western side being at a lower altitude. The western reaches of the park are dominated by grasslands. Tall elephant grass is found on higher ground, while short grasses cover the lower grounds surrounding the beels or flood-created ponds.
There are many different aquatic floras in the lakes and ponds, and along the river shores. The invasive water hyacinth is very common, often choking the water bodies, but it is cleared during destructive floods. The Wildlife wing of the forest department of the Government of Assam, headquartered at Bokakhat, is responsible for the administration and management of Kaziranga. The administrative head of the park is the Director, who is a Chief Conservator of Forests-level officer. A divisional Forest Officer is the administrative chief executive of the park. He is assisted by two officers with the rank of Assistant Conservator of Forests.